The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than
others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But
Gregory Cochran is prepared to say it anyway. He is that rare bird, a
secientist who works independently of any institution. He helped
popularize tha idea that some diseases not previously thought to have a
bacterail cause were actually infections ,which aroused much controversy
when it was first suggested.

17.[A] development[B] origin[C] consequence[D] instrument

  Even he, however,might tremble at the thought of what he is about to

  1. It can be inferred from the text that which of the following would
    most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who
    uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal
    decision analysis?

  被看做基因隔离的结果 be seen as a consequence of genetic isolation

Part A

  归因于社会影响 have been put down to social effects

Read the following four passages. Answer the questions below each
passage by choosing A, B, C and D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.
(40 points)

  密切相关 be intimately linked

14.[A] moreover[B] therefore[C] however[D] meanwhile

  与众不同,出类拔萃的人:Rare bird

Coltrane himself probably believed that the only essential
characteristic of jazz was improvisation, the one constant in his
journey from bebop to open-ended improvisations on modal, Indian, and
African melodies. On the other hand, this dogged student and prodigious
technician — who insisted on spending hours each day practicing scales
from theory books — was never able to jettison completely the influence
of bebop, with its fast and elaborate chains of notes and ornaments on


[C] Bailyn’s description of the colonies as part of an Anglo-American
empire is misleading and incorrect。

  引起了很大的争议:Arouse much controversy

7.[A] advises[B] suggests[C] protests[D] objects


[B] It is partially acceptable。

  以前被认为是不相关的have previously been thought unrelated

Section I Use of English


9.[A] attaining[B] scoring[C] reaching[D] calculating

  一想到……就害怕的身体颤抖:Tremble at the thought of

[C] They have relied in drawing their conclusions on what managers say
rather than on what managers do。



  He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not previously
thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections , which
aroused much controversy when it was first suggested.

[D] relate the experience of the migrants to the political values that
eventually shaped the character of the United States。


Finally, remember that the ultimate measure of your success as an
investor depends not on your owning the best-performing mutual fund.
Only one fund will be the top performer over the next decade, and
there’s no way to predict which one it will be. Meeting your own
financial goals should ultimately be the yardstick by which you measure
your investment success.


  1. The text suggests which of the following about the writers on
    management mentioned in line 1, paragraph 2?

  帮助普及该观点:Help popularize the idea

15.[A] given up[B] got over[C] carried on[D] put down

  使他们承受独特的进化力量have subjected them to unique evolutionary


  不敢公开:Dare not speak its name

Biologists call this kind of gradual variation over a certain geographic
range a “cline” and interpret clines as strong indications that the
variation is adaptive, a response to environmental differences. For the
starry flounder this interpretation implies that a geometric difference
(between fish that are mirror images of one another) is adaptive, that
left-eyedness in the Japanese starry flounder has been selected for,
which provokes a perplexing question: what is the selective advantage in
having both eyes on one side rather than on the other?

  不依附于任何机构:Work indipendently of any institution


  Dr.Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are
intimately linked.

[C] The results of recent research are introduced and summarized。


[E] Narrowing the search

  结构提示:that some diseases 是前面 the idea 的同位语从句,not
previously thought to have a bacterial
cause做后置定语修饰前面的diseases,主干是some diseases were actually

The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the
classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the
problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making
a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision.
Rather, in their day-by-day tactical maneuvers, these senior executives
rely on what is vaguely termed intuition to manage a network of
interrelated problems that require them to deal with ambiguity,
inconsistency, novelty, and surprise; and to integrate action into the
process of thinking。


Funds that invest solely in a single market sectors, called specialty
funds, often have impressive returns and may be great additions to a
diversified portfolio. However, the success of such funds depends
largely on the fortunes of a particular market sector. Hence, specialty
funds probably aren’t the best way to start. For your first fund, look
for a diversified stock fund that has exposure to different types of


[D] It is controversial though persuasive。


Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank
and mark A, B, C or D onANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  矛盾的状态 paradoxical state of affairs

Proponents of different jazz styles have always argued that their
predecessor’s musical style did not include essential characteristics
that define jazz as jazz. Thus, 1940’s swing was belittled by beboppers
of the 1950’s who were themselves attacked by free jazzes of the 1960’s.
The neoboppers of the 1980’s and 1990’s attacked almost everybody else.
The titanic figure of Black saxophonist John Coltrane has complicated
the arguments made by proponents of styles from bebop through neobop
because in his own musical journey he drew from all those styles. His
influence on all types of jazz was immeasurable. At the height of his
popularity, Coltrane largely abandoned playing bebop, the style that had
brought him fame, to explore the outer reaches of jazz。


  1. The author of the text would be most likely to agree with which of
    the following statements about Bailyn’s work?

  高度重视教育的传统a strong tradition of valuing education

The ease with which a fish can reverse the effect of the sidedness of
its eye asymmetry simply by turning around has caused biologists to
study internal anatomy, especially the optic nerves, for the answer. In
all flatfish the optic nerves cross, so that the right optic nerve is
joined to the brain’s left side and vice versa. This crossing introduces
an asymmetry, as one optic nerve must cross above or below the other. G.
H. Parker reasoned that if, for example, a flatfish’s left eye migrated
when the right optic nerve was on top, there would be a twisting of
nerves, which might be mechanically disadvantageous. For starry
flounders, then, the left-eyed variety would be selected against, since
in a starry flounder the left optic nerve is uppermost。

  由细菌引起的:Have a bacterial cause

  1. The primary purpose of the text is to [A] discuss the place of
    Coltrane in the world of jazz and describe his musical explorations.
    [B] examine the nature of bebop and contrast it with improvisational
    jazz. [C] analyze the musical sources of Coltrane’s style and their
    influence on his work. [D] acknowledge the influence of Coltrane’s
    music on rock music and rock musicians。

  2. Which of the following best describes the organization of the fourth
    paragraph? [A] A thesis referred to earlier in the text is mentioned
    and illustrated with three specific examples. [B] A thesis is stated
    and three examples are given each suggesting that a correction needs to

  They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty
genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts , however, social
effects, such as a strong tradition of valuing education. The latterwas
seen as a consequence of genetic isolation .Dr.Cochran suggests that the
inteligence and diseases are intimately linked. His argument is that the
unusual history of these people has subjected them to unique
evolutionary pressures that have reasulted in this paradoxical state of



  1. According to the text,Bailyn and the author agree on which of the
    following statements about the culture of colonial New England?

[C] take advantage of social research on the experiences of colonists
who migrated to colonial North America specifically to acquire land。

  1. Which of the following best summarizes the author’s evaluation of
    Bailyn’s fourth proposition?


13.[A] affirm[B] witness[C] observe[D] approve

12.[A] missions[B] fortunes[C] interests[D] careers

  1. According to the text, John Coltrane did all of the following during
    his career EXCEPT [A] improvise on melodies from a number of different
    cultures. [B] perform as leader as well as soloist. [C] spend time
    improving his technical skills. [D] eliminate the influence of bebop
    on his own music。

  2. According to the text a major difference between Coltrane and other
    jazz musicians was the

[A] Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who
rely on formal decision analysis。

[A] give sufficient emphasis to the cultural and political
interdependence of the colonies and England。


[B] Bailyn overemphasizes the economic dependence of the colonies on
Great Britain。

  1. In terms of its tone and form, the text can best be characterized as
    [A] dogmatic explanation. [B] indignant denial. [C] enthusiastic
    praise. [D] speculative study。

19.[A] limited[B] subjected[C] converted[D] directed

3.[A] of[B] with[C] in[D] against

  1. According to the text, senior managers use intuition in all of the
    following ways EXCEPT to

selectively neutral? [D] How do the eyes in flatfish migrate?39. Which
of the following is most clearly similar to a cline as it is described
in the second

[B] identify a problem。

  1. Which of the following statements about migrants to colonial North
    America is supported by information in the text?
  1. The text provides support for which of the following statements?

[D] The southern colonies were greatly influenced by the high culture
of New England。

[A] Watching related expenses and making wise choice

[C] It is highly admirable。

[B] Paying attention to details

the maximum profit.[C] A flower stall in which the various species of
flowers are arranged according to their price.[D] A housing
development in which the length of the front struts supporting the porch
of each

[A] Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not。


[B] Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic
analysis; Manager Y does not。

Do not write the address。

[A] speed up of the creation of a solution to a problem。

[C] Weighing your financial goals and expectations first

[B] describe carefully how migrants of different ethnic backgrounds
preserved their culture in the United States。

meaning of the difference between left-eyed and right-eyed
flatfish?[A] “Most striking” (line 3, paragraph 1)[B] “variation is
adaptive” (line 2, paragraph 2)[C] “mechanically disadvantageous”
(line 7, paragraph 3)[D] “evolutionary red herring” (line 9, paragraph

[A] It is totally implausible。

[C] Managers” intuition works contrary to their rational and
analytical skills。

6.[A] thought[B] sight[C] cost[D] risk

In this section there is a paragraph in English .Translate it into
Chinese and write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

[A] degree to which Coltrane’s music encompassed all of jazz. [B]
repetition of motifs that Coltrane used in his solos. [C] number of
his own compositions that Coltrane recorded. [D] indifference Coltrane
maintained to musical technique。

Part B

[B] Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions。


Three recordings illustrate Coltrane’s energizing explorations.
Recording Kind of Blue with Miles Davis, Coltrane found himself outside
bop, exploring modal melodies. Here he played surging, lengthy solos
built largely around repeated motifs — an organizing principle unlike
that of free jazz saxophone player Ornette Coleman, who modulated or
altered melodies in his solos. On Giant Steps, Coltrane debuted as
leader, introducing his own compositions. Here the sheets of sound,
downbeat accents, repetitions, and great speed are part of each solo,
and the variety of the shapes of his phrases is unique. Coltrane’s
searching explorations produced solid achievement. My Favorite Things
was another kind of watershed. Here Coltrane played the soprano
saxophone, an instrument seldom used by jazz musicians. Musically, the
results were astounding. With the soprano’s piping sound, ideas that had
sounded dark and brooding acquired a feeling of giddy fantasy。

Whatever the market does, try to take it in stride. You’re in for the
long haul, so don’t worry about the market’s day-to-day gyrations. Relax
and resist the temptation to monitor your first investment daily. Check
in on your mutual funds once a month, and give your portfolio a thorough
exam every 6 to 12 months. And consider adding to your fund each month.
An automatic investment plan makes it a relatively painless process。

[B] Migrants who came to the colonies as indentured servants were more
successful at making a livelihood than were farmers and artisans。

[D] They have misunderstood how managers use intuition in making
business decisions。

[F] Not too special



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